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PostPosted: Fri Jun 05, 2015 9:14 am 
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Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential of Maclura pomifera

The aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform extracts and two prenylated isoflavones: scandenone (I) and auriculasin (II), isolated from the fruits of Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider, were investigated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. For the anti-inflammatory activity, both carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema models and for the antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test were used. Scandenone, the chloroform and the ethanolic extracts were shown to possess antinociceptive activity and anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model at 100 mg/kg dose. The same compound and the extract were also found to be highly active in (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema model whereas auriculasin and the H2O extract showed to be inactive in all of the assays.


Flavonoids and isoflavonoids are well known for their beneficial effects on human health and their anti-insect and anti-microbial activities in plants. Osage orange fruit is rich in prenylated isoflavones and dihydrokaempferol and its glucoside. Four glycosyltransferases were identified from a collection of osage orange fruit expressed sequence tags. Biochemical characterization suggested that the glycosyltransferase UGT75L4 might be responsible for glucosylation of dihydrokaempferol in vivo, although this enzyme exhibited broad substrate recognition toward isoflavonoids and flavonoids in vitro. UGT88A4 was active on coumarin substrates. Identification of highly active phenylpropanoid glycosyltransferases will facilitate the metabolic engineering of glycosylated natural products in plants.


The major constituents of fruits of Maclura pomifera are the prenylated isoflavones, osajin (1) and pomiferin (2). Since significant biological activities of extracts from the wood of M. pomifera were previously reported, the peroxynitrite scavenging activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, scavenging of DPPH and EROD activity of these two major substances were studied.


Recent findings that many human chronic diseases are associated with oxidative stresses have instigated the search for dietary antioxidants. Many phytochemicals, particularly phenolic compounds, have been found to possess strong antioxidant activity and reduce the risks of those diseases. Isoflavones, a special phenolic group found in soybean, have been found to act as antioxidants in some model systems. This study investigated the isoflavone content in a unique nonedible tree fruit, Osage orange [Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid], and methods for the extraction, identification, and quantification of the two major isoflavones, osajin and pomiferin, were developed. The ethyl acetate extract contained 25.7% osajin and 36.2% pomiferin, and the two isoflavones were at 9.5 g kg-1 of fresh Osage orange. Two model systems, FRAP and β-CLAMS, were used to measure the antioxidant activity of these two isoflavones. Pomiferin was found to be a strong antioxidant in both systems, comparable to the antioxidant vitamins C and E and the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Osajin and the two soybean isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) showed no antioxidant activity. Although the Osage orange fruit is not a food source, it is considered to be safe and, therefore, a potentially good source of an antioxidant nutraceutical and functional food ingredient.


Phenolics from osage orange wood cleavage of oxyresveratrol

‘Dihydromorin pentaacetate,’ mp 192°, was shown to be5,7,2′,4′-tetraacetoxyflavone. Oxyresveratrol with acid or MS (probe) gave resorcinol and 7-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)naphthalen-1,3-diol.

Oxyresveratrol (OXY) is a polyhydroxylated stilbene existing in mulberry. Increasing lines of evidence have shown its neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer disease and stroke. However, little is known about its neuroprotective effect in Parkinson disease (PD). Owing to its antioxidant activity, blood-brain barrier permeativity, and water solubility, we hypothesized that OXY may exert neuroprotective effects against parkinsonian mimetic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity. Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have long been used as dopaminergic neurons in PD research. We found that both pretreatment and posttreatment with OXY on SH-SY5Y cells significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, the activity of caspase-3, and the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species triggered by 6-OHDA. Compared to resveratrol, OXY exhibited a wider effective dosage range. We proved that OXY could penetrate the cell membrane by HPLC analysis of cell extracts. These results suggest that OXY may act as an intracellular antioxidant to reduce oxidative stress induced by 6-OHDA. Western blot analysis demonstrated that OXY markedly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun. Furthermore, we proved that OXY increased the basal levels of SIRT1, which may disclose new pathways accounting for the neuroprotective effects of OXY. Taken together, our results suggest OXY, a dietary phenolic compound, as a potential nutritional candidate for protection against neurodegeneration in PD.

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