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PostPosted: Tue May 23, 2017 2:33 pm 
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Joined: Wed May 27, 2015 10:20 am
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The more I study Niacin (B3), the more I think it has possibilities in equine EIPH! It has been successfully used for bleeding gums, too.



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J


The therapeutic effect and mechanism of niacin on acute lung injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock: Down-regulation of the reactive oxygen species-dependent nuclear factor κB pathway.

Jeong KY1, Suh GJ, Kwon WY, Kim KS, Jung YS, Kye YC.
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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of niacin on acute lung injury by the down-regulation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in hemorrhagic shock (HS) rats.
METHODS:

HS was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by withdrawing blood to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 20 mm Hg to 25 mm Hg for 40 minutes. The rats were resuscitated by the reinfusion of the drawn blood, and a vehicle (HS), a low-dose of niacin (360 mg/kg, HS + LD-NA), or a high dose of niacin (1,080 mg/kg, HS + HD-NA) were administered orally. The survival of the subjects was observed for 72 hours, and a separate set of animals was killed at 6 hours after HS induction. We measured cytoplasmic phosphorylated inhibitor κB-α and inhibitor κB-α expressions, nuclear NF-κB p65 expression, NF-κB p65 DNA-binding activity, MEK partner 1 activity, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced glutathione, glutathione disulfide, malondialdehyde levels, and histologic damage in the lung tissue. We also measured TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in the serum.
RESULTS:

The survival rates of the sham, HS, HS + LD-NA, and HS + HD-NA groups were 6 of 6 (100%), 0 of 9 (0%), 1 of 9 (11.1%), and 3 of 9 (33.3%), respectively. A high dose of niacin increased lung NAD+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, and glutathione-glutathione disulfide ratios; decreased lung malondialdehyde levels; down-regulated the NF-κB pathway; suppressed TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in the lung tissue and serum; and attenuated histologic lung damage.
CONCLUSION:

A high dose of niacin attenuated lung inflammation, suppressed proinflammatory cytokine release, reduced histologic lung damage, and improved survival after HS in rats. Its therapeutic benefits were associated with the down-regulation of the reactive oxygen species-dependent NF-κB pathway.

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