A word of warning before you read on. This page is not written to encourage the average Joe or Johanna to go out and do ozone DIV.  It should only be attempted by those that are intimately familiar with the health sciences and have common sense skills when experimenting with innovative procedures. To those veterinarians, other health professionals, owners of livestock with dire infectious conditions that are seeking new paradigms, ozone DIV is well worth studying as I have found. In the end, every organism is unique as is its reaction to external & external & internal stimuli. There are never any guarantees in life, but one can often increase the odds in your favor. Ozone will help!


     My initial journey into oxidative medicine begin a number of years ago with the purchase and reading of The Oxygen Prescription: The Miracle of Oxidative Therapies by Nathaniel Altman. At the time, I was primarily interested in Hydrogen Peroxide therapy and fascinated by the clinical work of William Campbell Douglass II, MD in that field. After studying the Altman book, along with doing more research from the recognized ozone groups around the world, I found ozone DIV therapy to be widely considered a dangerous procedure which stimulated me to shelf any interest in it in favor of more work with hydrogen peroxide. However, over the intervening years ozone replaced my hydrogen peroxide interests with my discovery of the work of the ozone gurus in the USA, Robert Rowen MD and Howard Robins MD, I became far more curious and receptive to ozone DIV as a cheap "miracle" drug by this simple DIV route. I collected more knowledge along with appropriate instrumentation, just in case,  if I should ever want to actually experiment with ozone. For the most part, I felt if something dire infected me or my animals, I could easily use it, but for the time being, I would just set on this knowledge.  That all changed with the 2018 flu. I not only was infected with this virus, but it settled in my lungs and didn't seem to want to leave. After about four weeks of not much improvement while administering my herbal nebulizer solutions for my lungs to limited success, I broke my reluctance for ozone and decided I would try ozone DIV on myself. After all, the proverb: "Physician, heal thyself" has long been my mantra in medicinal matters--who better to first attempt it than myself on myself? The trigger was when I suffered a relapse of my viral lung involvement after about 3 weeks on a Friday night accompanied with another low grade fever episode. After viewing the below YouTube videos a few months previously, I decided the next day would be my first ozone DIV treatment! The first video seemed to show how effective ozone can be against the flu and the second Domb video demonstrated how simplistic it was even for self-administration. The result is my work with ozone DIV as depicted in the top photo of my infusion of ozone via a syringe pump into myself. This webpage will be a study of what I discovered and should be of benefit to others in treating man or beast for really tough infections.

    
  Ozone IV protocols as practiced by the majority of medical personnel the world around are primarily limited to the traditional  two: Major Autohemotherapy (MAH) and Minor Autohemotherapy procedures. These two are the commonly approved methods in Europe and most other parts of the world.  MAH involves withdrawing approximately 250cc of the patient's blood into an IV bag, adding ozone/oxygen gas mixture with a syringe, gently mixing and then reinjecting back into the patient. Minor autohemotherapy involves smaller volumes, 2-5 cc of blood drawn into a sterile 30 cc syringe where it is mixed with an already present 10 cc of an ozone/oxygen gas mixture in that syringe, shaken and then slowly reinjected.  Additionally there is currently a relatively new protocol pioneered by Dr. Lahodny of Austria, called the "Ten Pass" or Hyperbaric MultiPass Auto Hemo Ozone Therapy (SOT-hmahot)  which just came onto the scene and offers some exciting results superior to both MAH and minor. Both Dr. Rowen and Dr. Robins are enthusiastic proponents of this method. It does seem like the preferred ozone delivery method, presuming one can find a qualified trained practitioner owning the expensive specialized ozone hyperbaric equipment needed which may be more of a challenge than not. However, it should be of interest here that when Rowen and Robins went to Africa to treat Ebola, they used the DIV method in those primitive conditions. Simplicity does have its charms and advantages with this being particularly true in a veterinary, barn setting! Remember that! Basically, the Hyperbaric multipass method involves the removal of the patient's blood as in MAH, but this time larger volumes of the ozone/oxygen gas is forced under pressure into that removed blood volume resulting in a higher concentration of gas to be dissolved in the blood when compared to the simple mixing without pressure of MAH. Like MAH, this mixture is reinjected but unlike MAH, in multple-passes or multiple treated volumes up to 10 or more times at one setting. Lastly, we have Ozone Direct Intravenous (DIV) that many consider so dangerous.

     DIV ozone was probably one of the very first IV procedures employed in the historic use of medical ozone. Exactly why it has fallen into such ill repute is a bit hard to understand. As Dr. Robins writes, there are no first hand accounts any where on the Internet or medical literature that can document even one legitimate lethal case resulting directly from ozone DIV, just a lot of innuendo. The Italian ozone MD and author, Dr. Bocci is equally critical of ozone DIV methods, often suggesting that the well publicized deaths of two Italian women in his country as an example of its lethality which I might stress again, on closer examination had nothing to do with direct intravenous administration at all! Those deaths were ozone injections into fatty tissue at beauty salons, probably by non-medical personnel, plus these ladies seemed to have other under-laying health conditions.

    Bocci and many others also condemn ozone DIV because they think it is likely to cause an embolism in the bloodstream resulting in possible heart attack or stroke, death. Death by air embolism is one of the most cleaver fictionally used murder procedures on TV/movies alike that has fostered this myth of the lethality of injected air in the vein. It is way, way overrated both in fiction and even in a clinical medical setting! A good relevant quote here was written by Paracelsus:
"What is there that is not poison? All things are poison and nothing is without poison. Solely the dose determines that a thing is not a poison."  This holds very true for an ozone/oxygen gas mixture as well! There are a few important points with Ozone DIV that makes a huge difference from the act of simply injecting mixed atmospheric air into the blood stream. One: ozone/oxygen is being injected into the venous blood system which contains blood depleted of oxygen and accordingly is very oxygen hungry. Injected oxygen/ozone is quickly absorbed on contact, just as it would be if it were in the lung tissue. Two: ozone DIV only uses USP grade pure oxygen that has ozone generated into it and does not contain nitrogen.  Nitrogen is 78% of our atmospheric air. Injected nitrogen is very chemically unreactive!  Nitrogen acts very differently than the highly reactive ozone or oxygen gases in our blood stream by remaining in gas form which allows it to more likely result in an emboli. The fictionalized murder syringes of air are always drawn from the atmosphere, high in nitrogen.  Nevertheless, even very reactive gases like oxygen and ozone does have its absorptive limits in the blood stream. Even oxygen hungry blood can only react with so much oxygen/ozone. Proper infusion rates are important in ozone DIV. That is why I find a mechanical syringe pump very helpful like the one pictured in the above top photo. Dr. Robins and others disagree though they do not elaborate why.  Dr. Robins writes: "In my opinion, DIV should never be performed by pump, only by syringe in the hand of the  therapist."   I can only speculate here for the time being of his reasons. One would never want to rely too heavily on a pump to the detriment of observing all factors during DIV. Perhaps, he feels it would bring on a lackadaisical attitude of the staff or, maybe it is the FDA reports on injuries/deaths that occurred from the use of infusion pumps? It appears most of these FDA reports are for the modern hospital computerized versions where they list software malfunction, alarm errors, user programing issues (button bounce, etc) as the major issues. That is why I prefer the old analog models that do not rely on computer chips, are easy to use, have simple on-and-off switches, no screens, and consist of very limited ways one can foul up with these old types of technology.  What is also perplexing is that the new Ten Pass hyperbaric ozone generators of which Dr. Robins employs all contain self-enclosed syringe vacuum and injection pumps that are automatic. So, why would an automatic syringe pump be ok in one and not the other procedure?  Ok, ok, one can over-infuse blood with little serious consequence, maybe not so much a gas? I grant you that point.  I for one find the infusion pump to be simply a tool that few humans can match in uniform slow delivery versus human hand depression of the syringe's plunger. There is no reason why both the pump and the patient cannot be constantly monitored at the same time with the pump instantly being able to be cut-off or reduced according to patient response. In this instance, old analog technology is to be desired! I will discuss this topic further, later.

     Another fault often levied at ozone DIV is that it can induce bronchospasm - pain, tightness, constriction of the chest, and coughing.  Patients with a history of asthma, COPD, etc are often said to fare worse than others during DIV with an increased chance of acute respiratory failure; however, Dr. Robins disagrees and claims he has had excellent success treating such patients.   In the second YouTube video above, showing Dr. Bill Domb self-administering DIV, he describes some of the sensations that he has experienced during the procedure as tightness in the chest, the feeling that one would cough if breathing too deeply, that he can feel and "hear" the bubbles going through his shoulder, that he can feel them in his heart sometimes.  Notice after he pulls the needle in this video, he does cough once before filming is stopped.   In my experience, I have never felt any such sensations, though I will have a greater tendency to cough within 5-10 minutes after the needle is removed finishing the infusion. I suspect that most of these sensations are in response to too rapid injection times. Using my Harvard syringe pump set at 3.1 ml per minute, I had absolutely no sensations in my arm, shoulder or chest. Dr. Robins advises rates at 1cc per 5-15 seconds. My pump rate is more conservative than that, but I say, hey, what's the hurry? Dr. Robin's first response to bronchospasm sensations in the patient is to slow down the infusion rate. Dr. Robins writes:
"Bronchospasm occurs in many patients, though some patients never experience it at all.  It is very important  to note that this occurs most commonly on the first  treatment and diminishes on subsequent treatments, even though increasing amounts of oxygen/ozone are administrated. In fact, clinical experience has shown that by the 8th through the 12th treatment in virtually all patients, each receiving approximately 55cc at 55mcg/cc have it diminishes to the point that a second syringe may be given (in 10cc increments) with no increased lung irritation."  His theory on why this may happen:  "I believe that the ozone and its analogs are reacting with harmful  free radical gases such as carbon monoxide (as much as 3% or more of the gases found in blood), creating larger  than normal amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases that can be eliminated from the blood through respiration. The buildup of these gases around the lung tissue causes the feeling of pressure, tightness or discomfort in the upper chest. This also causes the lungs to try and expel these gases through coughing."

  
     Phlebitis, collapsed vein, venous pain are other possible complications to ozone DIV. Phlebitis is an inflammation of the vein which manifests as swelling, burning, itching, heat, tenderness, and redness along that vein.  The affected vein my feel hard and rope-like. A collapsed vein is caused by damage to the vein from an inflammatory response caused by the needle technique or by the ozone concentration injected.  Phlebitis' appearance often has blue discoloration along with pain, itching, etc. Such a vein will lack "bounce" as it is emptied of a normal blood supply.

     I don't like to tape my butterfly needle down (top photo) as is the common practice. I think that by anchoring the hub down to the skin with tape, rises the needle's inside bevel resulting in the upper inner membrane of the vein coming in a closer contact of irritants to its surface area. Certainly, IV needle taping is a common and excellent practice with most IV infusion therapies, just not in my view advantageous to ozone DIV infusions. Seriously, I have yet to have a butterfly needle jump out of it's position very easily once inserted! It is always best to hope the needle's bevel is ideally in the center of the vein away from the inner membrane of that vein. Taping the hub down will skew that positioning,


    Phlebitis is often seen as a fairly common complication of prolonged use of Ozone DIV. This can be prevented by lowering ozone concentrations, rotating use of different veins, along with other precautions to be discussed later. Dr. Rowen wrote a superb post on the subject:


"I will chime in here on DIV and phlebitis.

I do limited DIV, and for the reason of phlebitis and losing veins. I do think DIV has great value.. I have heard from many patients that they get MUCH better results from DIV than from standard gravity MAH, from standard therapy trained physicians. I began ozone with DIV in 1986 at 20 gamma. Over the years I have raised it to 30 gamma. I've seen very little problems at this level. I have done these on myself, including just this week, when I accidentally stuck myself with a needle (rare but happening event for us all). I immediately went to machine and took 35 cc ozone gas at 33 gamma. No vein issues. In Sierra Leone, I took daily ozone at 55 gamma. My veins did not like it but came out ok.

Many, many years ago, in an experiment on myself before I knew anything or anyone else in the ozone world, I took ozone at 70 gamma and dearly acutely damaged my hand veins.. They appeared to be thrombosed. Not something I'll ever do again. I immediately used castor oil packs, vitamin C and Wobenzym in large doses.. I was quite worried. By the third day, I could see blood running through my hand veins again and after some more time, the veins returned completely.... Now you would never know that I clotted off some large hand veins, they are just fine.

After that incident, I limited my gamma concentration for this procedure to 30.. I believe Howard uses higher amounts to get a faster response. He has to juggle cost, frequency and effectiveness. I weighed out on the side of the veins and was content to use less ozone. However, I largely dispensed with DIV (not completely for certain conditions) after I mastered HBO3 as the results we got were so superior to anything else I'd ever seen.

If bad vein access, DIV makes sense, but over time, if you keep hitting the same vein with lower gamma, you'll possibly knock it off. And, you ABSOLUTELY have to know what your machine is producing by your own analysis. And know that the machine might change over time so it needs to be rechecked. I can usually tell by machine behavior if something is off, regardless of the machine make. But most people will not know if a machine has gone south. With my analyses, when I give myself 30 gamma, I know that I am giving myself 30 gamma.

So, I hope this helps the discussion. I have found castor oil packs very useful in vein phlebitis, which, incidentally, can occur from MAH and HBO3 but is much rarer."



     Personally, I favor the use of a mechanical syringe pump because I think it helps prevent phlebitis. My view is that the the most uniform, lowest volume of ozone/oxygen infused into the vein is the best dosage less likely to inflame. An instrument-infused steady volume is preferred over the guessing at when and how strongly one should manually depress the syringe plunger by looking at a stop watch. To each his own, though!  I also think there may be a tendency out there for a much too aggressive approach in the number of infusions prescribed. I also do not believe in maintenance, day-in and day-out infusions or weeks-in or out. Pulsing routines are always a good idea to prevent the physiological organism from building up a tolerance or giving a breather for helping protocol-injured tissue to heal. This is not to say, one should not hit the initial infection hard & steady as one would prescribe antibiotics for too short of a protocol can be therapeutically bad, too.

Dr. Robins practice has done approximately 45,000 patients using MAH, but he quickly found ozone DIV to be more effective. He agrees with the Italian Dr. Bocci: "MAH helps improve most medical diseases and conditions, but rarely cures them." Compare this to Dr. Robin's clinical history of over 18 years of 160,000+ ozone DIV procedures in which he says he has significantly improved and more often completely eliminated the following diseases:

Herpes  I,  II,  VI;  Herpes  zoster (Shingles) including post-herpetic nerve pain;  Epstein-Barr Virus; Cytomeglavirus;  Adenovirus;  Coxsacchie  virus;  Lyme  Disease (all  stages); AIDS;  HIV;  Multiple Sclerosis;  Pulmonary  Fibrosis;  all viral, fungal and bacterial lung infections; all causes of sinusitis;  Viral  meningitis; Measles;  perforated ear  drum;  Rheumatoid  Arthritis;  Lupus;  Scleroderma;  Candidiasis;  E.  coli;  H.  pylori;  Crohn's  disease;  ALS;  RSD/CRPS  (first  in  the  world);  Chronic fatigue Syndrome;  Diabetic gangrenous ulcers; Diabetic peripheral neuropathy; Fungus infections of all types in skin and nails; Hepatitis B, C;  dry eye;  temporary blindness caused by embolism from "mini-stroke";  glaucoma;  HPV;  upper-respiratory  tract  infections (common cold);  all  forms  of  Influenza;  Thrush;  sleeping  disorders;  depression and anxiety (when due to medical  problems; Bells  Palsy; Fibromyalgia; Fibroids  on  uterus  and  thyroid  gland;  decubitus ulcers; infected wounds and ulcers.

     The safety record of Ozone DIV under Dr. Robins is also impressive. He writes that he has only experienced three patients that suffered adverse reactions  in the 160,000+ treatments. Those three involved the appearance of temporary rashes 30 minutes after treatment.

     The 2018 flu was a tough one this year and I can attest to that in person. The CDC writes that hospitalization rates this season have been record-breaking, exceeding end-of-season hospitalization rates for 2014-2015, a high severity for this 2018 H3N2-predominant season. I first felt symptoms of sinus & throat congestion on March 16th, followed three days later by a low grade fever, heavy sensation of the limbs, aching jaw the result of worsening sinusitis with ever thickening yellow mucus formation and discharge. I experienced rare sinus head aches. Lung involvement soon became very pronounced with shallow breathing, coughing, chest pressure, lung "rattling". During this period as an herbalist, I tried a number of my favorite herbal remedies, mostly administered as nebulizer solutions. They seemed to do little, but after about 10 days, I seemed to be on the improve with decreasing lung congestion and cough. Then on April 13th, my initial flu symptoms seemed to reoccur with a episode of another low grade fever, heavy arm sensations and increased lung involvement and coughing worse than ever.   I thought to myself,  enough is enough and tried ozone DIV the next day. Following Dr. Robins protocol, my initial ozone/oxygen volume was 20cc, but at a bit weaker ozone concentration of 49 mcg.  I felt relief that night and the next day for the first time. Two days later, I did another infusion at 34cc at the same concentration of 49mcg of ozone. The next morning, I could finally breath deeply without eliciting a cough and no more lung rattling sensations. I did a third infusion, three days later of 43cc but this time at the suggested higher concentration of 55 mcg. My lungs were feeling better and better. I decided to give another infusion the next day at the same volume and concentration plus the following day for a total of five IV infusions over that week. My lungs finally felt pretty much back to normal and for the first time in this very long episode of the flu, I had achieved a consistent lessening of symptoms and progress that week when I finally started ozone DIV therapy. I was impressed!

     I suspect in retrospect that had I initiated ozone DIV on March 16th when symptoms first appeared, it would have quickly aided my immune system in stopping the H3N2 virus in its tracks similar to how it was described at the beginning of this page in the first YouTube video. I started ozone almost 4 weeks after that first symptoms and it is probably no wonder that it took 5 infusions over about 7 days to regain normalcy.  If one studies the ebola ozone data,  ebola cases were treated within the first few days of symptoms resulting in complete cures. Immediate treatment with ozone is probably an optimum strategy for the most efficacious recovery which would hold true for all infections as well. I will know better next time! I will also know that the optimum dosage should probably be around 35 mcg rather than the higher doses,  I did with reasoning for that can be found in my Hormesis section later on.

     What is the theory behind the medicinal value of Ozone DIV in treating infections? Certainly, ozone is lethal when in direct contact of virus, bacteria, and fungi, but inside the body, these pathogens are far flung and protected, plus ozone dissipates in micro-seconds in blood.  Dr. Shallenberger probably has the best explanation on the essence of Ozone therapy. He labels ozone not a drug, but a Biological Response Modifier.  It is an immunomodulator that affects different patients, uniquely and appropriately for their individual system needs.  Ozone in part may work on Infectious diseases by activating ancillary mechanisms. Dr. Rowen writes:

1)   Ozone therapy improves red cell flexibility, enabling more oxygen transport.

2)   Ozone therapy stimulates your RBCs to generate a compound called 2,3 DGP. Interestingly, this molecule enables your RBCs to release their payload of oxygen into your tissues. Less 2,3 DGP and your RBCs might actually hold on to the payload leaving your tissues to become oxygen starved.

3)   Ozone therapy increases RBC ATP. The increased energy in the red cells enable newly created RBCs to become "super gifted" in the words of researcher Velio Bocci, MD of Italy.

4)   Ozone therapy appears to turn on overall mitochondrial function in your cells. Mitochondria are your cell furnaces where energy is made. More energy, more ability to repair, no matter the tissue or organ. This conclusion is based on basic science research of German and Cuban researchers showing more oxygen consumption in tissues.

5)   Researchers Bocci in Italy and Silvia Menendez, PhD and her team in Cuba have determined that ozone modulates the immune system. In other words, where there is inflammation that is not needed, ozone will dampen it, and allow inflamed tissues to heal. Where the immune system is weak, ozone therapy picks it up. The net effect of ozone therapy is to bring your immune system to a healthier set point of balance. You need inflammation to fight invaders and repair, but when inflammation is not turned off, the inflammation itself then becomes destructive to your tissues. In the case of joints, modulating inflammation with ozone can sometimes lead to instant results.

6)   Ozone, in vitro [lab cultures], instantly oxidizes reduced sulfhydryls to disulfides. While ozone itself lasts only microseconds in blood, the reaction of ozone with the blood lipids leads to the production of more stable but still highly reactive oxygen species (i.e. peroxides) which would react similarly, mimicing the pro-oxidant mechanism of immune system defense.

7)   Activation of the immune system: Ozone administered at a concentration of between 30 and 55
μg/cc causes the greatest increase in the production of interferon and the greatest output of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-2. The production of interleukin-2 launches an entire cascade of subsequent immunological reactions.



Conclusion:

    I am not a fool, nor do I suffer fools lightly. There are scores of alternative medical scams out there on the Internet of which one must continually be wary. Most alternative medical scams can easily be detected, if you study the promotional wording, plus simply follow the money! These scams are characteristically short-lived, around only long enough to make a killing, then vanish.  Ozone therapy has been around since the 1800's and has only gained more approval by those clinicians that have actually worked with it. The trouble is, most of the ozone critics over the years have not once worked with it, but they just know in their heart out of pure intuition of how toxic it is from shear logic!  Ozone therapy has often been labeled as a quack procedure not backed by scientific evidence by the medical powers that be;  plus, the wide spread myth of the deadly nature of air emboli doesn't help ozone out any either. The successes of ozone has literally scared the medical power players into very deliberate suppressive strategies over the years and something tells me its not because they have the consumers' safety in mind. Malaysia appears to be the latest country that has banned all forms of ozone protocols out of ignorance. The true reality: ozone is dirt cheap to generate, unpatentable, and can only be used when generated in minutes near the patient--not a good recipe for corporate profits!

    
Dr. Rowen and Robins organized an educational teaching expedition to Sierra Leone to fight the ebola epidemic in 2014. Both physicians were so sure of the value of ozone DIV in fighting the ebola virus from years of working with this modality in the USA that they thought they could make a huge difference in the African viral fight. What scammer in the world would ever do such a thing as an humanitarian gesture, yet alone exposing themselves to death? The crux of this story ends with the two only able to work in that country for days before the Minister of Health demanded their expulsion. They were there long enough to train a handful of doctors, treating a few patients with great success. Rowen was told later by reliable sources that the Zmapp and Vaccine companies found out about their ozone work and put pressure on WHO (World Health Organization) which in turn put pressure on the Sierra Leone Health Ministry to remove the two Physicians from the country. And so goes life and the profit motive!  If you study the biographies of Robins and Rowen, they have been crusaders all of their lives for more effective medical care. It would have been all so much easier for those two, if they had followed the company-line out of med school as their colleagues have by being simply becoming expensive legal pharmaceutical drug pushers. They would have been far more financially comfortable now, but that is not what motivates their psyche.  It is difficult to be a true believer in a condemned procedure when your beliefs contradict the health corporations and power centers. All legitimate alternative medical practitioners know this danger to their careers, yet something in their soul says: persist.  All I know is what I have seen and researched. I have seen first-hand, the value of ozone DIV. Hopefully, you may too.






     The Robins Protocol has proven safe and efficacious for Howard Robins MD and I would advise anyone to follow it very closely as I tried to do with a few exceptions I will discuss later:



A Tomco Ozone Generator is used at a 55 mcg/ml setting for all the patients in the study.

A Terumo 27 gauge winged infusion set (scalp vein set) and a Terumo 60cc syringe are used for administration.

     The largest superficial veins in the forearm or hand are used along with PICC  (peripherally inserted central catheter) lines at times.   PICC lines require pushing some sterile saline or water through first before the gas.  After pushing 5cc of oxygen/ozone gas through the infusion set to sterilize and prevent any air that might be in the tubing from entering the body, the needle is inserted into a vein.   The intravenous push is performed at a flow rate from 1cc per 5 -15 seconds depending on the size and resistance of the vein.  Most treatments last from 1 to 8 minutes depending upon the volume of gas delivered to a maximum of 12 minutes for 180 -240ml  treatments.  Smaller veins require a slower push than larger veins.  All adult patients are given 20cc at the first treatment increasing 10cc per treatment until 55cc are achieved. This volume is held until at least 10 to 12 treatments are completed. Additional volumes are given then in 10cc increments until an additional 60cc's are achieved.  In some cases a total of 180-240cc are given each treatment.  The amount given depends on vein tolerance, patient reaction to "kill-off",  and the presenting medical problem(s) being treated.  Infusion frequency is at a minimum of three treatments per week to a maximum of 12  (the Robins Fast-Trac method or RFT).  RFT can be performed at a maximum of 2 treatments per day  with a minimum three-hour window between treatments for no more than 6 days in a row or in any combination of consecutive or non-consecutive days.  One day a week with no therapy is necessary for the body to have an opportunity to clean out the waste created by the kill off from the treatments more completely. Volume, concentration and frequency is dependent upon:  body size with smaller people being fully perfused with less gas than larger people;  medical problem with more serious problems requiring more gas;  ability of the individual to tolerate the waste created and not develop Herksheimer/Jarrisch reactions following treatment;  lung reactions including bronchospasm or a feeling of tightness developing in the upper chest  (what this effect is will be discussed later).  Volume, concentration,  frequency and rate of administration are adjusted to each patient's individual needs and reactions as necessary at each treatment.  Over the years we have learned how to push the limits of concentration, volume, frequency and rate without causing undo vein damage or other adverse reactions.  Not a single patient has ever been harmed in anyway.   Every patient inducted into this protocol was fully informed of the risks and benefits and all consented to become part of our ongoing research studies. The Robins Method uses 27 gauge needles which makes it possible to treat almost any patient easily including children.  The use of this gauge needle also puts a stream of extremely small gas bubbles into the vein facilitating the safe dissolving of the gas in the blood and its attachment onto the red blood cells.

  We have used as much as 240cc's of oxygen/ozone gas, per therapy, without causing any adverse reaction of consequence.  Perhaps a larger amount might cause a problem but we have never offered more to any patient and  rarely use this amount.  Most get between 20cc and 115cc.




My Set-up and Method:


Ozone Generator . . . . . . . I would advise one to use only the best ozone generator you can afford. China of late has some interesting ozone medical generators very reasonably priced, but so far, I am suspect of their manufacturing codes and reliability.  My preference would be a western hemisphere product of which the Canadian manufactured Longevity Ext 120 currently is one of my choices considering my purchasing limitations. It can produce the full concentration range, from below 1 ug/ml (considered 'micro-dosing') to one of the highest ozone concentrations in the world, 120 ug/ml.  It consists of a cold corona double-walled quartz glass tube, known as being capable of providing the purest ozone in the world because the ozone is never in contact with ceramic, metal, plastic, rubber, glues, resins, nor any other material that would otherwise contaminate the ozone. The current retail price for this unit is approximately US$2000-2500 from what I can see.  The Promolife generator out of Arkansas would be another acceptable choice with a price around US$799.  One can often find used units on ebay cheaper, but know that used units may be in need of calibration. Both Longevity and Promolife offer generator inspections on all brands which may be a useful service if buying used.  Promolife will test their purchased units for a low fee! By the way, it was Longevity that donated their ozone units to be taken over to Sierra Leone by Dr. Robins and Rowen for their ebola work. They are made like tanks! Most of the ozone medical specialists choose the much more pricey German generators such as Zotzmann and Herrmann. I think they go for around US$12,500.

USP Oxygen tank and regulator . . . . . . . . . doing ozone DIV, the use of USP grade oxygen is a must! Also, one would use a pediatric tank regulator capable of flow sequences of 1/32, 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, 1, 2, 3. It is often over-looked that regulators may be inaccurate! I would advise anyone to test their regulators before use. Flow rates are vital for accurate ozone concentrations! Testing is simple, simply run a hose connected to regulator into a bucket of water where the air displaces water in an inverted water-filled measuring device (graduated cylinder) that registers in ml units. Use a stop watch to see how much oxygen/ozone is released in one minute or in case of larger air volumes displacement, do 1/2 minute timings multiplying by 2 I tested my regulator and found that:
 
1/32 mark = only provided 10 ml per minute of gas when it should have did 31.25 ml/min. Very slow and accordingly it would give a more concentrated ozone concentration than expected!

1/16 mark = gave 50 ml/min when it should have gave 62.5. Again, my regulator was giving a more concentrated reading than expected.

1/8 mark   = gave 125 ml/min. Accurate!

1/4 mark   = gave 264 ml/min. It was fast by 14 ml which would give a less concentrated ozone content than expected..

Syringe Infusion Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . personally, I think this is an indispensable piece of instrumentation with ozone DIV.  I also think a very controlled precise infusion rate helps limit vein phlebitis.  Dr. Robins and others seem to disagree. I am currently using an old analog Harvard Model  975.  As I discussed previously, the old analog technology pumps are probably the safest to use. All pumps should also be periodically checked for accurate calibration with a ml volume cup and a stop watch. A good used one can sometimes be had quite reasonably with many different brand models on ebay.

The cardiac output is usually expressed in liters/minute. For someone weighing about 70 kg (154 lbs), the cardiac output at rest is about 5000 ml. /minute. In this case, if the heart rate is 70 beats/min, the stroke volume would be a little more than 70 ml/beat. Dr. Bocci writes that oxygen solubility at 98.6°F is only about 0.23 ml per 100 ml of plasmatic water and therefore venous plasma.  Lets use this as a guide to how fast we should inject ozone/oxygen into the blood stream safely. There will of course be variables and unique individual anomalies that could upset these suppositions of blood solubility, but it is at least a guideline based on general scientific evidence of a point we should not pass.  Thus, we know it takes 100 ml of blood to absorb 0.23  ml of oxygen & ozone. Therefore, a 154 pound resting man would pump approximately 5000 ml / minute pass that needle.  In theory at that rate, 11.5 ml of oxygen/ozone could be given per minute with the blood just being able to absorb it.  Dr. Robins writes that human flow rate should be any where from 1cc per 5 -15 seconds. Using his fastest suggested flow rate of 1cc per 5 seconds, maximum flow rate would be 12cc per minute within my suggested spec calculation.

The cardiac output of a resting equine is said to be around 75ml/min per Kg of body weight.  Therefore, a 1000 pound horse would pump approximately 34,000 ml / minute pass that needle.  In theory, at that rate,  78.2 ml of oxygen/ozone could be given per minute with the blood just being able to absorb it. 



Glass Syringes . . . . . . . . . . . . . I use two sizes, a 50cc and a 2cc syringe. I prefer glass, though one can use the popular plastic disposable models with equal reliability. I just feel more comfortable with the inert properties of glass to ozone plus, the glass models seem to have freer plunger action. The 50cc syringe is used for actual ozone/oxygen infusion into the vein while the small 2cc model is used in prepping the 27g butterfly vein set by pumping out the atmospheric air present with an ozone/oxygen mixture prior to use. The smaller 2cc syringe also acts as a stabilizing anchor to the butterfly set while it is being inserted into the patient's vein--which I find helpful. I do own a autoclave which is always a plus when employing reusable glass syringes.  Many do not.

Butterfly Scalp Vein Set . . . . . . . . . . . coming from the veterinary field, I was rather turned-off by the use of these types of needles. I was accustomed  to doing IVs on jugulars with 16-19g needles, an inch or more long. I soon found out in the case of humans, the 25-27g butterfly scalp vein needles were quite nice to use and relatively painless! They are superb for superficial veins common in humans and probably canines as well. Perhaps not so useful in the equine where the jugular lies much deeper, though saying that, I have acquired some 1.5" needles at 27g which I would like to experiment with on the equine and bovine jugulars in the future. I may be pleasantly surprised that they will work much better than I would anticipate. Certainly in theory, the smaller 27g gauge needle would be preferred for ozone/oxygen infusion as that small bore would product smaller bubbles in the vein, though I may be over-blowing the importance of this.

2-way stopcock on the ozone generator outlet tubing . . . . . . . . . . .  I consider this syringe fitting to be an important accessory to the generator. It allows the generator to continually maintain an ozone/oxygen gas flow until you actually fill the syringe when the lever can easily be switched over to direct the gas into the syringe.  For accurate ozone concentration out of the generator, one needs to warm-up the unit for 10-15 minutes prior to filling the syringe. With this 2-way stopcock, gas flow is never halted.

1-way stopcock on the syringe . . . . . . . . . . . . . though this syringe fitting is not necessary, I find it very useful as a safeguard that once the 50cc syringe is filled with the desired gas, the stopcock can easily be turned to seal the gas inside until it can be used.

Tourniquet . . . . . . . . . . . . . this is a very helpful accessory when finding and inserting the butterfly into the vein. The kind I have pictured is particularly useful when self-administering, one hand friendly. Of course in veterinary medicine, these are seldom used. I use deep finger pressure on the equine and bovine to distend the jugular.
Ozone DIV Prep List:

Hydrate patient, a liter of water a few hours before infusion!

1)   Warm up ozone generator 10+ minutes at ozone concentration desired to obtain a consistent output. On my Longevity Ext 120, I set it at a # 3 setting at an oxygen tank flow of 1/8 liters per minute to get a 36 mcg concentration and since my regulator tests accurate at 1/8 liters/min, ozone concentration should be right on the money.

2)    Fill up small sterile syringe with ozone and pump through butterfly needle tubing displacing atmospheric air.

3)    Over-fill the large sterile syringe and place on syringe pump, switch on, removing excess ozone amount in syringe to obtain desired amount to be infused. Switch off until ready to begin infusion.  This preps the pump mechanism for instantaneous delivery.

4)    Apply antiseptic to site.    Tourniquet  upper arm, 3-6" from needle site. Pump fist a few times.

5)     Insert butterfly needle that has a small syringe attached which helps to stabilize tubing system.

6)     Wit needle properly seated, one should see blood flash in butterfly  tube. Remove TOURNIQUET.

7)     Detach small syringe from butterfly and attach to ozone filled syringe on the pump.

8)     Switch syringe pump on monitoring needle site for proper placement.

9)     Upon completion, routinely treat injection site with DMSO, flaxseed oil, aloe vera, or something similar.

NOTE:   Ozone is not a stable  structure and we need to be  able to manufacture it on site  for immediate veterinary use.  It typically has a half-life of  55 minutes in a 60cc disposable syringe.  Dr. Frank Shallenberger says ozone deterioration is even greater at 50% in 30 minutes in a plastic syringe. That is not a long time!  Ozone also is affected by temperature and air humidity. Ideally, fill syringe within minutes of actual injection.

For you sticklers, I admit, I did not wear surgical gloves during this infusion. I rationalized since I was doing it on myself, in my house, it wasn't absolutely necessary. If I were treating outside patients, particularly in a clinical setting, different story!
Ozone Administration in Horses
by Judith M. Shoemaker, DVM
My method of choice for systemic ozone administration in the horse is direct intravenous infusion of 70 ug/ml ozone in oxygen. Given at a reasonable rate (1-3 ml/sec), no significant side effects are usually encountered. I have administered thousands of ozone treatments in the last ten years with minimal reactions occurring only rarely. The most common reaction is an "itchy" nose if the administration rate is too fast. I usually listen to the heart the first time a horse is given ozone as the hyper-oxygenation of the heart will slow the rate significantly and heart rates below 18 bpm can lead to syncope. In athletic horses, one and two degree heart blocks are common and will be more frequent during ozone administration. I reduce the rate of administration if blocks occur more often than every four beats, as blood pressure drops occur with lowered rate and two-degree blocks.

The hyper-oxygenation of the gut can cause increased peristalsis and some horses show a very transient gas pain reaction. This usually occurs within 20 minutes of administration and lasts for, at most, 10-15 minutes. We usually give Rescue Remedy and Nux Vomica homeopathic and entertain them, and the discomfort resolves quickly. Severely toxic horses may have skin detoxification signs in a few days. Continued treatment creates phenomenal hair, mane, tail and hoof growth (up to 1⁄2" or more per month). All animals we have treated have benefited, and many have been "miracle cures".

I have treated cases of laminitis, septic arthritis and tenosynovitis, lymphosarcoma, endocarditis, myocarditis, C.O.P.D., allergies, colic, lymphangitis, abscesses, osteomyelitis, fistulas (poll and wither), candidiasis, periodic opthalmia, melanoma, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Lyme disease, Babesiosis, West Nile, EPM, herpes myelitis, sinusitis, tooth abscesses, soft tissue infections, bladder and kidney infections and chronic liver and kidney disease all with successful outcomes. Many completely resolved very rapidly, even long standing cases that had been treated unsuccessfully with the best of conventional medicine.

The procedure is simple. Making the ozone with Genesis' SST machine at 1/8 lpm flow of oxygen produces 70 ug/ml concentration ozone. Fill six 60cc syringes with the gas. Do not let them sit around, as the ozone will disintegrate the rubber of the syringe. One can use glass or non-reactive syringes; I just replace mine frequently. A 25-gauge needle (so bubbles are small) inserted in the jugular with a 24 inch IV extension set taped with duct tape is all that's needed to administer the treatment.

Give 1-3 ml/sec. and "strip" the jugular periodically during the treatment as the gas can accumulate in the empty vein as you proceed. It is almost impossible to create an embolism in a horse with this treatment, even if the vein fills completely, as the ozone and oxygen dissolve and are absorbed very rapidly.

Most often horses will look very content during and after the treatment. They soon look forward to it - especially if the first treatment is given at the rate described above and not faster. If an animal says his nose is very itchy or he seems uncomfortable after four 60cc syringes, we may reduce the dose to four syringes for 1-2 treatments. They usually tolerate all six after two treatments.

I usually recommend 8 treatments at 1-3 day intervals. I have treated animals with as many as 300 treatments over months with no side effects. Severe cases can be treated daily, but much older horses may want 2-3 days between treatments.

Even a few treatments will benefit, making other treatments more effective and accelerating healing. I often give a single ozone treatment after an adjustment and acupuncture session as the effects of other modalities of therapy are enhanced and any muscle soreness from reorganization and remodeling from joint reorientation are resolved and healed more rapidly. Ozone's effects are enhanced by Procaine and pain control is profound in some cases. The concurrent use of anti-inflammatories is contraindicated but is usually not needed, especially with homeopathic and/or neutraceuticals. One can use Palosein (orgotein) with ozone therapies.







Discussion:  One can't knock success or years of experience, but its interesting that she uses a very high concentration of 70 ug/ml  in six 60cc syringes or a total of 360 mls of ozone per treatment for what I presume is a typical 1000 lb horse.   In the past, 70 ug/ml  would have been considered the very upper reaches of acceptability.   Not now with the lower concentration guideline trends.  According to the Viebahn-Hansler article, Ozone in Medicine (2012),  the low dose concept (Hormesis)  has become the proven dosage platform of choice for ozone.  I consider any dosage over 60 ug to be approaching the toxic region, if injecting DIV. If that be the case, she is using a rather high concentration for the animal's needs and may be better off with a range around 35 ug/ml. Using my hormetic curve, 35 ug/ml  would be the sweet-spot dosage range. Her total dosage volume is close to the recommended volume used in humans for MAH.  She has a good idea about using a small gauge needle (25g) to reduce bubble size in the jugular along with an IV extension and monitoring the heart rate.  Any change in the heart rate should be carefully acknowledged and treatment rate adjusted.  Perhaps the commonly available equine heart rate monitors would be a very useful device to utilize when treating  a horse with ozone?   Lastly, it is interesting that she equated "nose itching" with a too  quick administration of ozone.  This might be a very useful tip and should be  monitored closely.  I will discuss below the concept of giving too much ozone and what can happen.  However,  lets look at her injection rate of 1-3ml per second (60-180ml  per minute).  According to my calculations above,  she may be injecting a bit too fast  since I feel anything over 78ml per minute in the equine blood stream may have a hard time with solubility.   Her slower rates are within that range, not her faster ones.  However, saying this, we do not live in a standardized world.  Her horses may not have  a cardiac output equal to a resting rate. As we know, vets can easily get horses' hearts racing resulting in increased blood flows able to take care of larger injection rates.  It all  depends.
This is a photo Dr. Frank Shallenberger using a Longevity EXT-120 ozone unit made in Canada  to fill a hypodermic syringe with the proper concentration of ozone gas and  oxygen.  Longevity was also the brand of ozone generator Dr. Rowen and Robbins took to Sierra Leone to treat Ebola. I own a used Longevity EX-120 and it is a very robustly constructed unit.

Hormesis and Ozone DIV Dosage


     The concentration, plus dosage volume values as in most all protocols dictate the beneficial versus toxic quality of delivered medical ozone. Ozone DIV would be an exception as this unique delivery system that basically treats a moving object, blood plasma, also is affected by a third component, the speed of blood flow passing the needle's bevel.  This is really very different from the majority of therapeutic methods where a localized immobile patch of tissue being the target.  Thus, drug concentration, volume and blood plasma flow speed are all the main factors for final consideration.   

     It seems to me that one of the reasons so many people have vein trouble is that the practitioner whether themselves or another are far too aggressive in applying this procedure. More is definitely not always better and can often be harmful. Its those with chronic cases of infections like Lyme & co-pathogens, who are most likely to feel compelled to use Ozone DIV, sometimes multi-times a day, day-after-day, week-after-week and so on---teased by receiving increments of improvement, but never really a cure. Ozone is never a cure-all! Without a supporting, well-functioning immune system to work with, it will probably be a disappointing protocol as would all therapeutic modalities. Employing DIV as such is a very bad practice and no wonder veins give way sooner than later! I have even heard rumors that Dr. Lahodny (originator of the 10-pass) is experimenting with a 40-pass ozone procedure! It is human nature to think more is better.  I think the concept of Hormesis is very applicable here, can teach us lessons, and we need to examine it. It is rather amazing to me that even the major ozone practitioners seem to only give the concept of Hormesis a passing glance & nod without too much further thought! Most all seem to think that ozone DIV dosage works efficaciously on a Linear path; well, until it doesn't and it suddenly becomes toxic! Not true at all, and I hope my thoughts here can change that for the better.

     Hormesis as a concept has been around for many years even if it was not known by that name. I have always been very fond of this quote of Paracelsus (1493-1541): "What is there that is not poison? All things are poison and nothing is without poison. Solely the dose determines that a thing is not a poison." Paracelsus didn't realize it, but that is the basic tenet of Hormesis. Hormesis is a universal model seen throughout nature where an exposure to a low dose agent elicits a beneficial effect up to a point (typical U or J-curve) while at higher doses, it becomes increasingly less beneficial and even toxic. There is a sweet-spot!

     Hormesis is a fundamental pillar involved in how life evolved on earth under challenging conditions. Primitive cellular life could not help but be exposed to some very toxic agents throughout its evolution. As examples, oxygen, carbon monoxide, iron, copper, etc all are toxic to life, yet the early earth life forms learned to cope and even in some cases incorporate these substances into their metabolic pathways. They found a little to be beneficial!  Mark Mattson interestingly writes:
"A common observation in studies of hormesis is that exposure to low levels of one type of hormetic agent can protect cells/organisms against more than one type of stress. For example, exposure of cells to mild heat stress can protect them from being damaged by oxidative stress or toxins such as cyanide." No doubt, Ozone DIV has that very useful trait as well.

We are interested in hormesis as a pharmacologic dose-response concept which may bring light to projecting optimum Ozone DIV dosages--finding that sweet-spot. In Pharmacology, we have three dose-response models: the linear no-threshold model (LNT), the threshold model, and the hormesis model. LNT is defined as an increasing response in an organism as being directly proportional to higher and higher dosages, hence in a linear upward pattern. The threshold model in the not so long ago past was the prime model used in pharmacology/toxicology in determining the hazard or efficacy of a drug by establishing its threshold dose. Hormesis on the other hand is becoming more and more the accepted model throughout research labs as a universal truth seen with life forms and their stressors.



Some interesting points of hormesis as set forth by Dr.Calabrese:

1. 
"Hormesis represents a central evolutionary strategy that is constrained by the limits of biological plasticity. The fact that such integrative and adaptive responses share similar quantitative features broadly across phyla suggests that a key evolutionary compromise was adopted between the degree to which biological performance (i.e., amplitude of stimulation) occurs and the cost of such enhanced performance within the context of managing limited biological resources."   That is, the response one can stimulate by say, ozone, is limited by the biological plasticity of the patient you are treating. One can generally only expect a modest 30-60% biological response over control with 100% over control very rarely indeed seen in nature. The stimulatory range is generally found to be within 20-Fold of NOEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level).  This uniform hormetic response is seen in all types of life, be it animal, microbe, plant and is remarkably consistent.

2.
"The fact that hormesis is often produced in response to stimulatory processes and across all forms of life strongly suggests that its origins are evolutionary and highly conserved."

3.   "Of particular significance is that the quantitative features of hormetic dose responses were shown to be independent of mechanism." Determining the actions or mechanisms for all agents under study has been a demand set forth by many organizations in order to gauge the toxicity or efficacy of any certain stressor. This is not true for the hormesis model in which the mechanism of action is not required to be known, only the endpoint and inducing agent are important. Thus, though many of us suspect we know how Ozone DIV works, knowing how it works as a certainty is not necessary to apply hormesis.

4.
"Hormetic responses can depend on the physiological state of the biological model. Low doses of IR stimulate immune responses in normal cells/organisms; if the biological model displays inflammation then the same low doses of IR suppress the immune response, creating an anti-inflammatory phenotype." An important point! Never disregard the patient's physiology as a factor in the overall treatment strategy!

5.
"Based on subsequent comparisons with other leading dose-response models, the hormesis dose response consistently provides more accurate predictions in the below threshold zone." It is my view that the hormetic model is our best application to estimate the sweet-spot of ozone concentrations DIV.

     Velio A Bocci's monograph, Ozone acting on human blood yields a Hormetic Dose-response Relationship (Bocci
et al. Journal of Translational Medicine 2011)
suggests the validity of using the hormetic effect when describing ozone concentrations in blood.  He proposed a graph (to the right) of how ozone concentrations may relate in ozone autohemotherapy (MAH) as gleamed from data using it in treating Peripheral Arterial Diseases (PAD). Bocci writes: ". . . that an ozone dose of only 10 μg/ml per ml of blood is fully neutralized by both uric acid and Aa, especially when the TAS of individual blood is between 1.5-1.9 mM." He also writes that ozone at 10 μg, the minimal reaction, if any, with the Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) will not generate enough messengers as ROS and LOP to trigger biological effects as well. "In this case the small ozone dose is totally consumed by available free antioxidants and the ozonated blood will not display therapeutic activity. Gaseous ozone doses between 20 and 80 μg/ml of blood are well calibrated against blood's TAS and both biological and therapeutic effects will ensue."  These autohemotherapy values cited when it comes to applying to Ozone DIV won't be a realistic depiction, but it does conform to the Hormetic U-curve as expected as should hormesis equally apply to an Ozone DIV model as well.

     A study designed to detect hormesis is a rather complex exhaustive one involving a large number of dose concentrations, the dose spacing in the low-dose zone while utilizing the statistical power of the study. However, since the hormetic response is so consistent throughout nature, just estimating hormetic response can be of value and that is what I have attempted in the following section. My interpretations may be open to debate and I set them forth only as food for thought.

     Bocci's observation of the 10 μg value of ozone being neutralized fully by blood is a good starting figure for my proposed ozone DIV hormesis graph (seen to the right) and, thus will be the starting point for my hormetic curve. On the other end of the spectrum, I will use the 60 μg value as my zero-benefit (0%) therapeutic point. Above 60 μg ozone concentrations and toxicity appears in increasing detrimental increments in DIV. 60 μg will be the zero-point of no-benefit to the right of the curve. As suggested by my graph, the sweet-spot would be approximately 35 μg at the top of the curve, give-or-take, from the analysis of the hormetic prediction model. One would be wise to stay in that range for the most efficacious results with the minimum of vein damage. If the %-benefit predictive values of the hormesis model are correct and hold true for Ozone DIV as it consistently does for other medicinal agents throughout our natural universe then there is no way that 55 μg (Dr. Robbins routine concentration) could ever be the optimum therapeutic concentration for ozone DIV!  Actually, Dr. Rowen's earlier suggested ozone concentration of  30-33 μg would be much more optimum as he instinctually seems to know. Robins'  55 μg  value would be on the far right-side of the inverted U-curve where the therapeutic benefit would be no better than the 15 μg dose benefit as seen on the left-side of that inverted U-curve of that same graph!   Let me repeat this:  55 μg  of ozone would only have the same therapeutic benefit as 15 μg!  Plus, remember that 55 μg  has the disadvantage of having toxicity close approaching!  Also consider that since ozone generators can vary from factory specs, that infusing ozone/oxygen around 35 μg would offer the patient a nice safety buffer range for any errors in ozone machine concentration production. This would not be the case at 55 μg. 

      Point 2, what about infusion rates of ozone flowing into a moving plasma volume as seen in DIV? There is a lot of inconsistency out there in the clinical world. Dr. Robins suggests a flow rate from manually depressing the syringe plunger of "1cc per 5-15 seconds" which translates into 4-12cc per minute--some advocate slower and some faster depending on patient response. My view is that hormesis may give us a clue to the sweet-spot here as well.  I would suggest that the outlier limit of flow rate should be dictated by ozone/oxygen solubility as I discussed earlier on this page. If for no other reason, it is desirable to have the ozone/oxygen dissolve as soon as possible after leaving the needle's bevel as this will reduce vein phlebitis. Infuse too much gas and micro-bubbles will float to the vein membrane's wall, possibly oxidizing surface areas. A 154 pound resting man would pump approximately 5000 ml per minute pass the needle.  In theory at that rate, 11.5 ml of oxygen/ozone could be given per minute with the blood just being able to absorb it on contact directly from the needle. Of course, you could probably safely give more as the infused micro-bubbles not immediately absorbed at needle's bevel, would be absorbed further up the vein on its way to the lungs, but as I suggested earlier, this could open your patient up to vein membrane damage.  I agree with Dr. Robins with the upper acceptable flow value at approximately 12cc/minute for most humans. However there is no reason why one should limit the minimum flow rate to 3cc per minute. I will use a 1cc per minute flow value for the left side of my hormetic graph with 12cc/min to the right. Theoretically as seen in my proposed hormetic infusion rate graph to the right, approximately 5-9cc per minute may be the sweet-spot for infusion rates. Note that this is at the theoretical ozone concentration sweet-spot of 35 μg. Infuse a higher concentration and the hormetic curve would be conditionally affected.

    Point 3, lastly we have gas volume to consider. This will be a bit more difficult subject to pin down. Dr. Robins suggests 20-240cc (at his 55 μg) as his acceptable range of volume with the most typical being 20-115cc per session. I will use his maximum volume value for the far right of my hormetic curve with much reservation.   Accordingly, the most likely sweet-spot value will come in at around 110cc which seems to fall inline with the typical ozone DIV session applied in Clinics out there as an average.  Having said this, I am very intrigued with the experimental concept that larger volumes could be administered, but at lower concentrations more inline with my projected sweet-spot concentration of 35μg. It seems to me that if a lower, less toxic concentration is used, one could increase infusion times greatly with a more extended benefit to the patient of the total blood plasma/ozone reaction mechanism. It is often said that the Lahodny 10-pass method's advantage to MAH and DIV is that it allows ozone to be pressurized into the blood volume creating more of the desirable metabolites & reactions before being infused back into the body. If this is true, one could theoretically do something similar in DIV by simply extending the infusion time at the more desirable 35μg or even perhaps tweaking with bit lower concentrations found on the left-side of the hormetic concentration curve. For instance, one could infuse 300cc over a 60 minute period at 5cc/minute at 35μg for a possible very interesting advantage over the typical treatment regime and perhaps approach or equal the advantage differential seen in the 10-pass. Word of caution, I agree with Dr. Robins with an initial volume of 20cc to examine how the patient reacts for the first time. Its always best to start slow with caution!
 


------------------------------------------------------






Revisiting Vein damage that can happen with Ozone DIV:


     After studying the many posts found on facebook, particularly at the OZONE FOR HEALTH group by those that do Ozone DIV, perhaps the most limiting side-effect to this procedure is vein health. Vein health needs to be seriously considered and protected against with too many practitioners only worrying about vein damage once it appears. Prevention is always worth a pound of "cure" and as Dr. Ellingwood writes, it is probably present and overlooked many times in its subacute form! It would be a very good practice to immediately apply various healing modalities once the butterfly needle has been withdrawn on a routine basis! Do not wait till you actually feel and see damage!  This could be as simple as applying topically, only DMSO to the site or more complex with heating pad & castor oil flannel pack or various DMSO paints consisting of comfrey and other healing herbs.  Dr. Rowen suggests the use of castor oil packs, an old Edgar Casey remedy. Casey writes of his wife being plagued with thrombophlebitis of the left great saphenous in her leg.  "Treatment in this case was: (1) light, high-vitamin diet with forced fluids; (2) castor oil pack over the affected area held in place with Ace bandage; (3) increased vitamin intake (probably not necessary if #1 is followed); and (4) the healing hands of a friend. Her response was quite remarkable, as in some of our prior experiences with superficial thrombophlebitis. The pack was applied during the day on the first and second day. By the time 24 hours had passed, there was no redness, no pain, and only a faint residual of tenderness. In 36 hours, there were no remaining symptoms or abnormal findings; the patient was well; there was no recurrence." I would suggest similar routine use of castor oil after all DIV sessions.

      The famed herbalist, Dr. John Christopher's  BF&C formula. should be of value in phlebitis as well.  It has regenerated many bone, flesh, cartilage injuries thought to be incurable:

1) Comfrey root.......................6 parts

2) Oak bark............................6 parts

3) Gravel root..........................3 parts

4) Mullein...............................3 parts

5) Lobelia...............................1 part

6) Wormwood.........................2 parts

7) Marshmallow root................3 parts

8) scullcap..............................1 part

9) Black Walnut bark...............3 parts (this should be eliminated in equine formulas)


This should be taken internally as well as applied topically. A cheesecloth compress can be soaked and applied to the injured part. Then wrap with plastic and wrap with an ace bandage.







I have long used DMSO and find DMSO extracted herbal compounds to be an excellent way to combine the attributes of DMSO with the healing properties of a number of herbs with some examples:  comfrey, oak bark, st. john's wort, horse chestnut, witch hazel.






     A very interesting Study: 


Effect of External Use of Sesame Oil in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Phlebitis    
 
Iran J Pharm Res. 2012 Autumn; 11(4): 1065-1071


This study conducted to determine the effect of external use of Sesame Oil (SO) in the prevention of Phlebitis.

Sixty patients with colon or rectum cancer, who admitted for chemotherapeutic management, enrolled in clinical trial and were randomly divided into two equal groups: Control and Intervention. Ten drops of sesame oil was applied twice a day for 14 days externally in intervention group, whereas the control group received nothing. Incidence and grade of Phlebitis was measured in both groups. Data was analyzed through independent t-test,
Χ2, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney, and Lagrange survival using SPSS 16.

The incidence of Phlebitis was 10% and 80% in intervention group and control group, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups (p < 0.05). Phlebitis was 8 times more frequent in control group (R R = 8; AR R = 70%). In addition, there was statistically significant difference between the grade and incidence of Phlebitis with sesame oil and control group (p < 0.05).

According to these results, it seems that external use of sesame oil is effective, safe and well-tolerated for prophylaxis from Phlebitis. Therefore, it can be suggested as a selected prevention method for reducing the complication.

NOTE: That sesame oil and flaxseed oil are very similar and in my view could easily be exchanged with the same benefits!



                                                                                  ---------------------------------



Aloe Vera for prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis.
Zheng GH1, Yang L, Chen HY, Chu JF, Mei L.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:   Up to 80% of hospitalized patients receive intravenous therapy at some point during their admission. About 20% to 70% of patients receiving intravenous therapy develop phlebitis. Infusion phlebitis has become one of the most common complications in patients with intravenous therapy. However, the effects of routine treatments such as external application of 75% alcohol or 50% to 75% magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) are unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new methods to prevent and alleviate infusion phlebitis.

OBJECTIVES:    To systematically assess the effects of external application of Aloe Vera for the prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis associated with the presence of an intravenous access device.

RESULT:  Aloe Vera, either alone or in combination with routine treatment, was more effective than routine treatment alone for improving the symptoms of phlebitis including shortening the time of elimination of red swelling symptoms, time of pain relief at the location of the infusion vein and time of resolution of phlebitis. Other secondary outcomes including health-related quality of life and adverse effects were not reported in the included studies.



Finley Ellingwood, MD. wrote a very interesting treatise on phlebitis in his 1908 text:

"An inflammation of any portion of the structure of a vein which results in changes in the coats of the vessel, is denominated phlebitis.

The disease occurs as a complication of other conditions, and is not always diagnosed as an independent condition. In fact in many chronic cases it is not recognized at all, and while it contributes very materially to the prolongation of the disease, as a separate and distinct condition it receives no treatment. This at times becomes a serious error.

The disease may be either acute or subacute. A chronic form is not always recognized, as in this form structural changes are apt to produce obliteration of the lumen of the vessel, and result in conditions, that are otherwise recognized.


When the disease involves the inner lining of the vein only, it is called endo-phlebitis and was quite common in those days when blood letting was constantly resorted to as an antiphlogistic measure. The inflammation in these cases began at the point of injection site of the vein, and extended to the neighboring parts.

The symptoms are those of pain in the injured parts, soon followed by a knotty feeling, with a tense and painful cord-like condition, which follows the course of the vessel. There may be a chill with more or less fever and a greater or less degree of nervous symptoms. There is discoloration of the skin and an acute edema below the obstruction. There may be rapid and irritable pulse, dry brown tongue, dry skin, constipation, anorexia, and if pyemia develops there will be pain in the joints. Later the skin may become white, shiny, stretched and very hard. This condition like other inflammations may terminate by resolution, by suppuration, ulceration or gangrene. Occasionally the vessel becomes immediately occluded, a clot forms, and permanent obliteration results, the clot and veins ultimately contracting, to form a firm cord which is known as adhesive phlebitis. When this disease follows a septic traumatism it is apt to become dangerous, leading to direct blood infection and pyemia.

When this inflammation develops more gradually, as in the subacute forms, it is not dangerous. It is usually induced by previous disease of the coats of the vein, which have resulted in thickening, and in a deposit of fibrinous matter. The vein may be occluded and in the occluded structures an abscess may form which should be opened as an ordinary abscess.

In the treatment of these cases the specific indications for some of our remedies are so plainly marked that these remedies would be selected at once by a specific prescriber and the best of results follow. The local aching, and severe pain in the surrounding muscular structures, immediately suggest Black Cohosh. The aconite pulse is nearly always present with the fever, but occasionally indications for gelsemium are plainly apparent. Bryonia can be used in this disease, also, with a prompt response to its influence. In the subacute cases, collinsonia or witch hazel are most desirable remedies.  Where the indications are not plainly pronounced, I have used gelsemium. and black cohosh as routine treatment.

Local measures contribute materially to the cure, whatever the variety of the disease, if it be near the surface. If in a limb, as in the crural form, the limb should be elevated, and should be thoroughly bathed with hot salt water, after which I usually apply a simple liniment at first, which consists of one part of ammonia, and four or five parts of olive oil. This should be applied very freely and the limb enveloped in cotton, the whole held in place by a loose roller. It should be dressed at least twice a day. In other cases the application. of witch hazel frequently is of much benefit. Occasionally gauze may be saturated with witch hazel and applied to the parts for hours at a time, the limb being kept very warm. This is especially valuable when the local aching and pain are very hard to bear."






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Interesting
Tidbits gleamed from the Facebook group, Ozone for Health



Vein Health:

". . . patient should have good veins and rotate through them. Otherwise, treatment will be compromised. Success rate heavily depends on this. Taking care of veins is the most valuable asset and that includes the process of carefully poking it every time."

". . . superhydrate your body 48 hours before doing DIV."

"If the skin at the injection site starts to rise, a very good indication your needle is not in the vein."

Pumping hand into a fist is a good way to dilate veins before injection.

Heat can be used to engorge veins before injection.

Avoid sticking the butterfly needle into the valves of veins. There are YouTube videos showing how to detect vein valves before injection.

Castor Oil packs can be used for vein damage.

"This (Blood leaking and brusing) will happen with wrist and ankle veins more readily than with other veins. They may be protruding more but tend to get quickly inflamed and collapse."

"For small veins-drink 1 L of water before the IV, then have her dangle her arm to the side while pumping the wrist. Then you put on the tourniquette while she still pumps the wrist. This makes most veins come out nicely. But if they use a large needle, it could get tricky."

Rules I use to preserve vein health:  rules that I follow:  " 1) superhydrate and max out Vit C (and Rutin) the day before and day of a DIV session     2) Give each puncture site at least a 7 day's rest   3) Monitor the veins. If a vein starts to feel a little bit harder or lumpy, avoid it until it heals and softens up again.  4)  f the veins are very intolerant, try lowering the dose to 35 gamma. 5) use 27G butterfly needles (I like Terumo's because they are short). Do not re-use needles and discard any needle with 3 failed venipuncture attempts (microscopic damage can lead to emboli).  6)  make sure the equipment is medical grade and that proper sterile products and safe venipuncture procedures are used  7)  f I feel ANY burning while doing DIV, immediately stop, no matter how desperately I need the ozone (I made this mistake). This is inflammation in the vein which will scar and eventually collapse.   8)  Only do a DIV from the mid-forearm on up to the elbows. Avoid the hand, wrist, feet, ankle, etc. These sites have a far, far greater risk of scarring and collapsing from ozone."

One ozone professional was asked if he has observed the occurrence of phlebitis with higher gamma?  reply:  "None in three years of practice. The secret may be slow infusion I believe."

An ozone vet said this:  "In animal patients I inject ozone IV then put a pressure-wrap on the leg. That seems to prevent phlebitis. I tried it on myself and didn't get a bruise but this last time I forgot and just used a Band-Aid, no pressure wrap."

From a health professional that does his own:  "Then I drove to my clinic intent on a DIV treatment. First filled my water bottle. Then filled the 60cc ozone-resistant syringe. I could feel the vein and see the vein, But somehow I lost it with the butterfly. Then felt the horrific pain that comes from ozone under the skin but outside the vein. So I quit the ozone. Later that day I had crepitus along my arm. The skin felt like bubble wrap. It passed. But tells me I should stop IV ozone for a while."

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". . . ozone therapy is not a magic pill, it should be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and other therapies if your illness is chronic."

In reference to single and double ozone cell generators:  "Single vs double:   From 70 to 110 gamma. If you need to reach around 60 to 70 gamma, perhaps you may think that you don't need the dual, but reality is that almost all pediatric oxygen regulators are terrible getting 1/32 LPM. To tell you the truth, even to get exactly 1/16 LPM is 95% of the time not accurate. So it is easier to stay at the 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 LPM with the dual. Having said that, what I prefer about the single is the more easier curve of concentration from dial setting 1 to 8. This means concentration increases in smaller increments and that is helpful when starting a new therapy and slowly increasing concentration while maintaining speed in LPM."

Oral Vitamin C is good to counteract ozone induced tightness of chest and other side-effects.

Severe damage with glutathione IV can occur with mercury toxic people- do not do allow glutathion IV with amalgams.  One should test for mercury. "The porphyrins urine test is apparently an FDA approved test for mercury toxicity, especially the one which tests for coproporphyrins. So if the test turns positive, it means that mercury toxicity is present. But if the test turns negative, it does not exclude mercury toxicity since a mishandling of the urine samples can lead to a false negative result. And this apparently is not uncommon."  Mercury is often a major hurdle towards health and often the reason why ozone therapy does not work as intended.  "Ozone will deplete glutathione levels, but increase glutathione dependent enzymes like glutathione reductase, transferase and peroxidase, and other antioxidant enzymes like superoxide oxidase. All in all, the administration of ozone does NOT seem to significantly increase overall antioxidant activity."

"Ozone is THE creator of Herxheimer reactions per excellence. It is the king of all Herxheimer inducing kings. This is the most important thing to know about ozone: you will get sick before you get better. You can take that to the bank."

"When ozone is used intravenously, it has been shown that red blood cells can be damaged if the ozone concentration is above 70 ug/ml."

Experiencing of heart palpitations numerous times after various types of ozone treatments.    "It is unlikely that it has to do with inflammation of the heart. After my recent experience with oxalates and ozone I have reason to believe that this more due to oxalates dumping which can be triggered by ozone. If the heart palpitations are due to oxalates, they can be also brought on by magnesium supplements or simply drastically reducing one's oxalates intake through food. Magnesium citrate (also other magnesium types, but citrate more so than others) can trigger oxalate dumping which can lead to palpitations. Or reducing one's oxalate intake dramatically. Yes, I've also experienced various lung sensations including coughing and coughing out phlegm or just dry coughing for no apparent reason. Oxalate can also leave the body through lungs."

"I find Robins' protocol of using concentrations of 55mcg/ml excessive and unnecessary, unless it is used for the treatment of varicose veins."

"Remember ozone once injected immediately form peroxides and any irritation to the veins are at the site of and not distally in heart muscle."

"Ozone bagging should take care of any type of infection or inflammation including cellulitis. Make sure the skin is moist and choose a high concentration of 70 to 100 mcg/ml. Do it daily."


"Oh gosh, guys! I saw my ND today. I've asked in the past if she could inject my inflamed frozen shoulder with ozone. She's had no training in joint injections so she declined. But today she ask me how I've done it at home. I told her I just put in 0.5cc total subcutaneously around the shoulder area, only penetrating about 1/4 to 3/8" deep...very superficial. She asked if I wanted her to try it. YES, OF COURSE!! Soooo, she injected about 1 cc of 36 gama in each of four sites around my shoulder. The needle penetrated only about 5/8" on my skinny shoulder. It really burned at first and my skin sorta ballooned up a bit, but about 15 minutes later, it felt great & I had about 20% better range of motion. By the time I got home, there was ABSOLUTELY NO PAIN in that shoulder for the first time in I-don't-know-how long.....maybe a year! Whoo hoo!"

From Dr. Gallardo:  " Here is one and easiest point to inject the shoulder. Typical shoulder size is 100 to 140mm so using from 27Gx50mm to 27Gx75mm is recommended depending on the size. We use Japanese needles in ours premises for all infiltration stuff. You should inject 15 to 30cc to fully cover the shoulder. One to two sessions per week. 10 to 15 gamma. Again, it is not recommended do this by ourselves, I'm showing this schematics to give you the idea on how should be done by a professional as photos are suggesting. Also, the sterilization of the area and the sterile whole process is important. There are four main points to enter to the center of shoulder anatomy. We pick one and then inject ozone that will cover the whole shoulder. Probably if the pain is more in the back part, we choose a point in the back. The same for front. But we evaluate each session. We use procaine first, then ozone."

"We gave our dog
, Major Autohemotherapy Ozone Treatment by a vet for over a year. He had Cushings Disease. He was barely able to do anything. We would take him in for his treatment and he came out wagging his tail like he was a puppy and full of life. It is just amazing!!"

From a vet:  "I've had several cases of siezuring dogs that I treated with DIV ozone. And didn't need to see them again for more siezures."

























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Georgian Med News. 2006 Sep;(138):93-5.


Influence of intravenous ozone treatment on the level of different specificity antibodies
[Article in Russian]


Mandzhgaladze NR, Kharebava ER, Didia TsG, Ardzhevanishvili MD, Gudzhabidze MV, Chigiashvili TsN.

Abstract:

Medical ozone is the universal stimulator which participates in intracellular biochemical processes. Treatment with intravenous ozone was studied in 35 women, 20 of them with gestosis Rhesus sensibility, 3--with anti-HLA antibodies, 5--pregnant with ABO sensibility, 3--with anti-sperm antibodies, and 7- with antivirus antibodies (Herpes 1,2 and CMV). As a result, ozone treatment is effective for decrease anti-erythrocyte and anti-leukocyte antibodies and other antibody levels in blood. Medical ozone has direct antiviral activity which induces long term remission and in some cases total elimination of virus from blood. Generally, ozone is a modulator of the immune system, stimulating links of humoral and cell immunity. It appeared that index of immune regulation (T-helper/T suppressor) in pregnant women was increased and level of immunoglobulins (Ig G, M, A) was within normal ranges. This work shows the results of chemical influence of ozone on the antibodies which subsequently the decreases the level of modifying immunoglobulins.